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Earth Day Flag.png Flag of California.svg Benvenguts/udas e un «Adieu» caud sus ma pagina! Flag of the North American Free Trade Agreement (standard version).svg Flag of Europe.svg

Soi Brenno d'Aloisi (pseudonim), nascut e vivi en Califòrnia. Ai viscut dins quatre estats americans (Califòrnia Seal of California.svg, Tèxas Seal of Texas.svg, Hawaii Seal of the State of Hawaii.svg e Washington Seal of Washington.svg) e un autre país, la China National Emblem of the People's Republic of China (2).svg, a moments diferents de ma vida.

Dempuèi ma descobèrta en 2014 de la musica dels autres países, ai desvelopat un grand interes e una granda curiositat pels autres lengatges, las cançons e las culturas del mond. Eventualament, ai trobat la lenga occitana a travers de la musica, e legit pauc a pauc l'istòria d'Occitània e de son lengatge. Apuèi, ai descobèrt l'edicion occitanofòna de Wikipèdia per mon interes en la lenga, e finalament devengut contributor en 2019.

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Sequoia sempervirens[modificar | modificar la font]

Descripcion[modificar | modificar la font]

Ecologia[modificar | modificar la font]

Tèxte original[modificar | modificar la font]

Coast redwoods are resistant to insect attack, fungal infection, and rot. These properties are conferred by concentrations of terpenoids and tannic acid in redwood leaves, roots, bark, and wood.[16] Despite these chemical defenses, redwoods are still subject to insect infestations; none, however, are capable of killing a healthy tree.[16] Redwoods also face predation from mammals: black bears are reported to consume the inner bark of small redwoods, and black-tailed deer are known to eat redwood sprouts.[16]

The oldest known coast redwood is about 2,200 years old;[17] many others in the wild exceed 600 years. The numerous claims of older redwoods are incorrect.[17] Because of their seemingly timeless lifespans, coast redwoods were deemed the "everlasting redwood" at the turn of the century; in Latin, sempervirens means "ever green" or "everlasting". Redwoods must endure various environmental disturbances to attain such great ages. In response to forest fires, the trees have developed various adaptations. The thick, fibrous bark of coast redwoods is extremely fire-resistant; it grows to at least a foot thick and protects mature trees from fire damage.[18][19] In addition, the redwoods contain little flammable pitch or resin.[19] If damaged by fire, a redwood readily sprouts new branches or even an entirely new crown,[18][16] and if the parent tree is killed, new buds sprout from its base.[16] Fires, moreover, appear to actually benefit redwoods by causing substantial mortality in competing species while having only minor effects on redwood. Burned areas are favorable to the successful germination of redwood seeds.[18] A study published in 2010, the first to compare post-wildfire survival and regeneration of redwood and associated species, concluded fires of all severity increase the relative abundance of redwood and higher-severity fires provide the greatest benefit.[20]

Redwoods often grow in flood-prone areas. Sediment deposits can form impermeable barriers that suffocate tree roots, and unstable soil in flooded areas often causes trees to lean to one side, increasing the risk of the wind toppling them. Immediately after a flood, redwoods grow their existing roots upwards into recently deposited sediment layers.[21] A second root system then develops from adventitious buds on the newly buried trunk and the old root system dies.[21] To counter lean, redwoods increase wood production on the vulnerable side, creating a supporting buttress.[21] These adaptations create forests of almost exclusively redwood trees in flood-prone regions.[16][21]

The height of S. sempervirens is closely tied to fog availability; taller trees become less frequent as fog becomes less frequent.[22] As S. sempervirens' height increases, transporting water via water potential to the leaves becomes increasingly difficult due to gravity.[23][24][25] Despite the high rainfall that the region receives (up to 100 cm), the leaves in the upper canopy are perpetually stressed for water.[26][27] This water stress is exacerbated by long droughts in the summer.[28] Water stress is believed to cause the morphological changes in the leaves, stimulating reduced leaf length and increased leaf succulence.[24][29] To supplement their water needs, redwoods utilize frequent summer fog events. Fog water is absorbed through multiple pathways. Leaves directly take in fog from the surrounding air through the epidermal tissue, bypassing the xylem.[30][31] Coast redwoods also absorb water directly through their bark.[32] The uptake of water through leaves and bark repairs and reduces the severity of xylem embolisms,[33][32] which occur when cavitations form in the xylem preventing the transport of water and nutrients.[32] Fog may also collect on redwood leaves, drip to the forest floor, and be absorbed by the tree's roots. This fog drip may form 30% of the total water used by a tree in a year.[28]

Traduccion[modificar | modificar la font]

Las sequòias son resistents als atacs d'insèctes, als infeccions fongicas e a la poiridura. Aquelas proprietats son ##conferadas## de ##terpenoids## e d'acid tanic dins las fuèlhas, las racinas, l'escòrça e la fusta de sequòias.[1]

Coast redwoods are resistant to insect attack, fungal infection, and rot. These properties are conferred by concentrations of terpenoids and tannic acid in redwood leaves, roots, bark, and wood.[1] Despite these chemical defenses, redwoods are still subject to insect infestations; none, however, are capable of killing a healthy tree.[1] Redwoods also face predation from mammals: black bears are reported to consume the inner bark of small redwoods, and black-tailed deer are known to eat redwood sprouts.[1]

coast Douglas fir = avet de Douglas costièra (sosespècia de l'avet de Douglas)

Pacific madrone = arboç pacific" ???

tanoak = chêne à tan (fr) = "garric de tan" ?

western hemlock = "Tsuga de l'Oèst" e "Pin d'Oregon" ?

redwood sorrel = "agreta/vinheta de la sequòia" ?

spotted owl = "cavèca pigalhada" ?

marbled murrelet = "guilhaumet marbrat" ?

black bear / american black bear = "ors negre" o "ors negre american" (d'Ors (mamifèr))

  1. 1,0 1,1 1,2 et 1,3 (en) Reed Noss, The Redwood Forest: History, Ecology, and Conservation of the Coast Redwoods, Island Press, (ISBN 978-1559637268, OCLC 925183647)