Lengas atabascanas

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Distribucion precoloniala de las lengas na-déné (atabascanas + eyak + tlingit)

Las lengas atabascanas o atapascanas son una larga familha de lengas indigenas d'America del Nòrd, localizadas a l'oèst en tres grops de lengas atenents: septentrional, còsta pacifica e meridional. Kari e Potter estimavan en 2010 lo territòri total de las 53 lengas atabascanas a 4,022,000 de km2.

Lo chipewyan es la lenga nativa parlada sus lo pus grand territòri en America del Nòrd, mentre que lo Navajo es la lenga nativa parlada per lo pus grand nombre de locutors al nòrd de Mexic.

Classificacion intèrna[modificar | modificar la font]

La familha de las lengas atapascanas se repartís en tres grops geografics : septentrional, còsta pacifica e meridional. Lo fach que las lengas de la còsta pacifica constituisson un grop genetic valid demòra un objècte de discussions entre lingüistes. Lo grop septentrional es el particularament problematic. En rason de l'abséncia dels critèrs d'inovacion partejada e de las correspondàncias foneticas, abitualament utilizats per definir des regropaments condreches, la familha atapascana (especialament las lengas septentrionalas) foguèt qualificada de "complèxe coesiu" per Michael Krauss (1973, 1982). Aital, lo modèl teoric d'arborescéncia genetica de la familha (Stammbaumteoria) es benlèu inapropriat. Las lengas de la branca meridionala son ben mai omogenèas e constituisson lo sol sosgrop clarament genetice.

La lista ci-dessós presenta las brancas principalas de la familha atapascana. Es basada sus la classificacion de Keren Rice (veire Goddard 1996, e Mithun 1999).

  1. Alaska Sud
  2. Alaska-Yukon Central
  3. Canadà nòrd-occidental
  4. Tsetsaut
  5. Colómbia Britanica Centrala
  6. Sarsi
  7. Kwalhioqua-Tlatskanai
  8. lengas atapascanas de la còsta pacifica
  9. Apacha

Las brancas 1-7 son lo regropament del Nòrd. Kwalhioqua-Tlatskanai (#7) s'es sovent considerat part de la Còsta Pacífic, mas una recenta revision de Krauss la tròba alonhada d'aquestes lengas. Una classificacion leugièrament diferenta, formulada per Jeff Lee, es la seguenta (Tuttle & Hargus 2004:72-74):

  1. Alaska (Ahtna, Dena’ina, Deg Hit’an, Koyukon, Kolchan, Tanana Bajo, Tanacross, Tanana Alto, Gwich’in, Han)
  2. Yukon (Tsetsaut, N. Tutchone, S. Tutchone, Tagish, Tahltan, Kaska, Sekani, Dunneza)
  3. Colómbia Britanica (Babine-Witsuwit’en, Dakelh, Chilcotin)
  4. Est (Dene Suline, Slave, Dogrib)
  5. Sud (Tsuut’ina, Apatxe, Costa del Pacífic)

Lengas atapascanes septentrionalas[modificar | modificar la font]

1. Ahtna 35 parlants (2000)[1]
2. Dena'ina 75 (1997)[2]
3. Deg xinag 25 (1997)[3]
4. Holikachuk (o innoko) 12 (1995)[4]
5. koyukon 300 (1995); 100 (2000)[5]
6. Alt Kuskokwim 40 (1995)[6]
7. Alt Tanana 24 (1995-2000)[7]
8. Tanacross 35 (1997)[8]
9. Baix Tanana 30 (1995)[9]
10. Tutchone meridional 200 (1995)[10]
11. Tutchone septentrional 200 (1995)[11]
12. Gwich'in (o kutxin) 800 (1995)[12]
13. Hän (també han) 14 (1995-1997)[13]
A. Lengas de la cadena o tagish-tahltan-kaska
14. Tagish 2 (1995)[14]
15. Tahltan 35 (2002)[15]
16. Kaska 400 (1995)[16]
17. Sekani 35 (1997)[17]
18. Danneẕa (o beaver) 300 (1991)[18]
B. Lengas slave-hare
19. Slave
a. Slave del nòrd 1.030 (1995);[19] 300 (2002);[20] 1.235 (2006)[21]
b. Slave del sud 2.890 (1995);[22] 2.000 (2002);[20] 2.310 (2006)[21]
20. Mountain
21. Bearlake
22. Hare
23. Dogrib 2.110 (2001);[23] 2.000 (2002)[20]
24. Dené o dené suliné (chipewyan) 5.000-12.000 (1982);[24] 9.030 (1995)[25]
  • Tsetsaut
25. Tsetsaut † (~1950)
26. babine (tanben carrier septentrional) 500 (1997)[26]
27. Carrier
a. Carrier del sud 500 (1997)[27]
b. Carrier central 2.060 (2001);[28] 1.500 (2002)[20]
28. Tsilkotin 1.140 (2001)[29]
  • Lenga sarsi
30. Sarsi 50 (1991)[30]
  • Lengas kwalhioqua-tlatskanai
31. kwalhioqua-tlatskanai † (hacia 1930)

Lengas atapascanas de la còsta pacifica[modificar | modificar la font]

  • Sosgrop atapascan de Califòrnia
32. Hupa 8 (1998)[31]
33. Mattole[32]
34. Atapascà del riu Eel
  • Sosgrop atapascan d'Oregon
35. Chetco 5 (1962)[33]
36. Tututni 10 (1962)[34]
37. Galice-Applegate
38. Tolowa 4 (1994)[35]

Lengas atapascanas meridionalas[modificar | modificar la font]

39. Apacha de les planas (apatxe kiowa) 1.000 (1980);[36] 18 (1990)[37]
  • Sosgrop apacha occidental
A. Chiricahua-Mescalero 1.800 (1977)[38]
40. Chiricahua
41. Mescalero
42. Navaho 125.000 (1980);[36] 149.000 (1990);[39] 150.000 (2002);[40] 170.717 (2007)[41]
43. Apacha occidental (coyotero) 11.000 (1980);[36] 12.700 (1990)[42]
  • Sosgrop apacha oriental
44. Jicarilla 680 (2000)[43]
45. Lipan 2 (1981)[44]

Vejatz tanben[modificar | modificar la font]

Referéncias[modificar | modificar la font]

  1. Ethnologue report for language code: ahtena
  2. Ethnologue report for language code: Tanaina
  3. Ethnologue report for language code: Degexit’an
  4. Ethnologue report for language code: Holikachuk
  5. Ethnologue report for language code: Koyukon
  6. Ethnologue report for language code: Kuskokwim, Upper
  7. Ethnologue report for language code: Tanana, Upper
  8. Ethnologue report for language code: Tanacross
  9. Ethnologue report for language code: Tanana, Lower
  10. Ethnologue report for language code: Tutchone, Southern
  11. Ethnologue report for language code: Tutchone, Northern
  12. Ethnologue report for language code: Gwich'in
  13. Ethnologue report for language code: Han
  14. Ethnologue report for language code: Tagish
  15. Ethnologue report for language code: Tahltan
  16. Ethnologue report for language code: Kaska
  17. Ethnologue report for language code: Sekani
  18. Ethnologue report for language code: Beaver
  19. Ethnologue report for language code: Slavey, North
  20. 20,0 20,1 20,2 et 20,3 Kenneth Katzner (2002) [1977]. The Languages of the World. Nueva York: Routledge, pp. 343. ISBN 978-0-415-25004-7.
  21. 21,0 et 21,1 2006 Census of Canada
  22. Ethnologue report for language code: Slave, South
  23. Ethnologue report for language code: Dogrib
  24. John R. Edwards (1998). Language in Canada. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 136. ISBN 978-0-521-56328-4.
  25. Ethnologue report for language code: Dene
  26. Ethnologue report for language code: Babine
  27. Ethnologue report for language code: Carrier, Southern
  28. Ethnologue report for language code: Carrier
  29. Ethnologue report for language code: Chilcotin
  30. Ethnologue report for language code: Sarsi
  31. Ethnologue report for language code: Hupa
  32. Ethnologue report for language code: Mattole
  33. Ethnologue report for language code: Chetco
  34. Ethnologue report for language code: Tututni
  35. Ethnologue report for language code: Tolowa
  36. 36,0 36,1 et 36,2 Kenneth Katzner (1986) [1977]. The Languages of the World. Londres: Routledge, pp. 359-360. ISBN 0-7102-0861-8.
  37. Ethnologue report for language code: apatxe, Kiowa
  38. Ethnologue report for language code: apatxe, Mescalero-Chiricahua
  39. Ethnologue report for language code: Navajo
  40. Katzner, 2002: 366
  41. Hyon B. Shin & Robert A. Kominski (abril, 2010) Language use in the United States: 2007. American Community Survey Reports.
  42. Ethnologue report for language code: apatxe, Western
  43. Ethnologue report for language code: apatxe, Jicarilla
  44. Ethnologue report for language code: apatxe, Lipan