Pequots

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Es Pequot son ua nacion der estat de Connecticut. An estat arreconeguts coma Mashantucket Pequot. Es sòns ancessors son era familha des Algonquins. An era sua reserva en Ledyard, en eth comtat de London, Connecticut. Sos era sua direccion qu'ei eth Foxwoods Resort Casino. Ei eth mès gran casino en m2 e en nombre de maquines de jòc e ei un des més rendius (1).

Aguesta tribú siguec arreconeishuda peth Estat Federau en 1983. Siguec era ueitau nacion en véder arreconeishuda era sua condicion. Era apertenença ara tribú vien des listes censals de 1900 (2). Sonque i a dus tribús arreconeishudes en Connecticut, es autes son es indis Mohegan. Ambdús an desvolopat grans casinòs enes sues reserves.

Mès er Estat de Connecticut tanben arreconeish era tribú des Schagticoke, es Eastern Pequot atau coma es Golden Hill Paugusset.


Geografia[modificar | modificar la font]

Era reserva d'aguesta nacion ei dirigida peth Bureau of Indian Affairs en Ledyard, Connecticut, sus er arriu Pequot, adara aperat Thames River. Era tribú a 14.000 m2 de terres ena vila de Preston. Siguec creada en 1666 e en eth segle XX aguec 20 o 30 òmes solets. Quan era darrèra india moriguec en 1973 er Estat de Connecticut pensec d'auer un aute viatge era terra de nau.

Més es Pequot artenheren qu'aguesta apropiacion estatau siguec declarada ilegau. En 1983 era sua causa arrivec anquiara justicia federau. Adara an junhut totes es terres sos era autoritat deth Bureau of Indian Affairs e en er an 2000 auien 5.6 Km2 (3).

En 1990 es Pequot eren 320. En 2005 eren 785. Des de 1992 aguesta tribú a desvolopat un centre de casinos plan gran. Era Universitat de Connecticut concloguec qu'aguesti casino eren plan bons tara economia dera vila vesina de Ledyard e tà tot er estat de Connecticut.

Istòria[modificar | modificar la font]

Es Pequot descenen dera istòrica tribú algonquina des Pequot. Aguesta tribú dominaua era area dera costa des der arriu Niantic enquiar arriu Wecapaug en Rhode Island. Un dusau grop, es Pequot der Est tanben ganheren arreconeishement federau en 2002.

Era recerca arqueologica e linguistica a revelat qu'es tribús istòriques que traparen es europeus emergiren en diuersi periodes e agueren diuerses migracions. En es prumères annades dera arribada des europèus, eth contacte damb pescaires, es tribús dera còsta aueren ua mortalitat plan alta pr'amor de diuerses malauties infeccioses. Pendent es annades coloniaus es europèus escrigueren sus diuerses guèrres enter tribús.

Abans es estudiants pensauen qu'es Pequot emigraren des dera Val der arriu Hudson enquiath eth centre e est de Connecticut en 1500. Er capelhan Rev. William Hubbard escriguec ja en 1677 qu'es Pequot auien arribat ara zona un shinhau abans qu'es fondec era colonia de Plymouth. Dempús dera Guerra der Arrei Felip (King Philip's War), Hubbard escriguec Narrative of the Troubles with the Indians in New-England (Narrativa des Problemes damb es Indis de Naua Anglaterra) tà justificar era ferocitat damb qu'es indis atacaren es anglesi. Hubbard considerec es Pequot coma foranis ena region e es descriguec coma invasors der interior deth continent que prengueren lòc per fòrça e qu'eren eth terror de sons vesins (4).

Adara se sabe qu'es Pequot e sòns ancessors an estat ena area dera Val de Connecticut pendent centuries abans d'era arribada des europeus (5) (6) (7). Quan neishec Plymouth es Pequot manauen ena zona centrau e de l'èst de Connecticut a nivèu politic, economic e militar. En aquetha epòca eren 16.000 des der arriu Niantic enquiar arriu Wecapaug en Rhode Island (8).

Totun, era epidemia de veròla de 1616-1619 tuec eth 90% des indis d'aguesta còsta est de Naua Anglatèrra mès arribec pas as Pequot, es Niantic e es Narrangansett. Aguesta epidemia ajudec de consolidar era dominacion des Pequot.

Mès ua epidemia en 1633 devastec toti es indis. Es pequot perderen mès d'un 80% deth sòn pòble. En es inicis dera Guèrra des Pequot ( Pequot War) sonque demorauen 3.000 Pequots (9).

Era guèrra des Pequot[modificar | modificar la font]

En 1637 Connecticut e era Colonia dera Bahia de Massachussets ganharen as Pequot ena Guèrra des pequot. Açò contunhec diuersi atacs indis sus Wethersfield damb diuersi morts. Es forces militari des dues colonies, manades per John Mason e John Underhill, lençaren un assaut sus era fortalesa pequot en Mytic e ua grana part deth pòble siguec tuat (10).

Es colons esclavaren es Pequot qu'enqüera viuien e diuersi sigueren obligats a tribalhar en plan d'ostaus coma servents des puritans. Plan d'eri sigueren enviats as Indies Occidentaus e d'autes entregats as Mohegan e as Narragansett, es sòns enemics e aliats des anglesi. Pauqui Pequot tornaren ath sòn territori (11).

Damb es ans se maridaren damb d'autes ètnies e era sua cultura moriguec. Més es sòns descendents, totun de diuerses races, contunharen en auer un sentit de comunautat e s'amassaren damb d'autes tà formar es Pequot.

En 1910 sonque i auia 13 indis ena reserva (12) e en 1973 moriguec era darrièra india. Er estat de Connecticut començec a reclamar es terres més en 1975 Richard Arthur Hayward arténhec er arreconeishement federau dera sua tribú. En 1983 Ronald Reagan firmec er Acta d'Assentament des Indis de Connecticut.

Aué[modificar | modificar la font]

Era interpretacion des leis en sobirania tribau an permès diuerses nacions de desvolopar es sòns honts d'ingresi e negòcis. Es Pequot decidiren d'escolhir eth joc coma generador d'economia i salut dera tribú.

En 1992 dubrigueren eth sòn casino, Foxwoods. Adara qu'ei un des més grani de tot lo monde e tanben un des més prospèrs. Ei proche dera area metropolitana. Da tribalh as jovens dera tribú atau coma sós tà invertir en d'autes programes com eth museu. Proche de Foxwoods, era tribú des Pequot tanben manten eth Museu des Pequot de Mashantucket e tanben un Centre de Recerca. Aguesti parlen dera cultura e istòria des Pequot pendent milenis.

Referències[modificar | modificar la font]

1.-^Salwen, Bert (1978). "Indians of Southern New England and Long Island: Early Period." In Northeast, ed. Bruce G. Trigger. Vol. 15 of Handbook of North American Indians, ed. William C. Sturtevant. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, pg. 175

2.-^ Frank Speck, "Native Tribes and Dialects of Connecticut: A Mohegan-Pequot Diary", Annual Reports of the U.S. Bureau of Ethnology 43 (1928): 218.

3.-^ the Pequot Relationships, as Indicated by the Events Leading to the Pequot Massacre of 1637 and Subsequent Claims in the Mohegan Land Controversy", Archaeological Society of Connecticut Bulletin 21 (2947): 26-33.

4.- ^ Dean R. Snow and Kim M. Lamphear, "European Contact and Indian Depopulation in the Northeast: The Timing of the First Epidemics," Ethnohistory 35 (1988): 16-38.

5.- ^ Refer to Shelburne F. Cook, "The Significance of Disease in the Extinction of the New England Indians," Human Biology 45 (1973): 485-508; and Arthur E. Speiro and Bruce D. Spiess, "New England Pandemic of 1616-1622: Cause and Archaeological Implication," Man in the Northeast 35 (1987): 71-83.

6.- ^ Lion Gardiner, "Relation of the Pequot Warres," History of the Pequot War: The Contemporary Accounts of Mason, Underhill, Vincent, and Gardiner (Cleveland, 1897), p. 138; Ethel Boissevain, "Whatever Became of the New England Indians Shipped to Bermuda to be Sold as Slaves," Man in the Northwest 11 (Spring 1981), pp. 103-114; and Karen O. Kupperman, Providence Island, 1630-1641: The Other Puritan Colony (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1993), p. 172.

7.- ^ Rootsweb: Pequot-Bermudian Reconnection Festival 2002

8.- ^ "Thirteenth Census of the United States taken in the year 1910" United States Bureau of the Census, (Washington, D.C. : Government Printing Office, 1912-1914).

9.- ^ See Laurence M. Hauptman and James Wherry, eds. The Pequots in Southern New England: The Fall and Rise of an Indian Nation (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1990); Wayne J. Stein, "Gaming: The Apex of a Long Struggle," Wicazo Sa Review, vol. 13, No. 1. (Spring, 1998), pp. 73-91; and Jace Weaver's review of Jeff Benedict's polemic, "Without Reservation," Wicazo Sa Review, vol. 17, no. 2 (Autumn, 2002), pp. 210-213.

10.- ^ See Reagan's initial response in "Message to the Senate Returning Without Approval the Mashantucket Pequot Indian Claims Settlement Bill", April 5, 1983, University of Texas.

11.- ^ Mashantucket Pequot Indian Claims Settlement Act (1983), S. 366.

12.- ^ Heller, Louis G. (1961). "Two Pequot Names in American Literature," American Speech 36(1): 54-

Bibliografia[modificar | modificar la font]

º Gardiner, Lion. Leift Lion Gardener his Relation of the Pequot Warres (Boston: [First Printing] Massachusetts Historical Society Collections, 1833).

º Hubbard, William. The History of the Indian Wars in New England 2 vols. (Boston: Samuel G. Drake, 1845).

º Johnson, Edward. Wonder-Working Providence of Sion's Saviour in New England by Captain Edward Johnson of Woburn, Massachusetts Bay. With an historical introduction and an index by William Frederick Poole (Andover, MA: W. F. Draper, [London: 1654] 1867.

º Mason, John. A Brief History of the Pequot War: Especially of the Memorable taking of their Fort at Mistick in Connecticut in 1637/Written by Major John Mason, a principal actor therein, as then chief captain and commander of Connecticut forces; With an introduction and some explanatory notes by the Reverend Mr. Thomas Prince (Boston: Printed & sold by. S. Kneeland & T. Green in Queen Street, 1736).

º Mather, Increase. A Relation of the Troubles which have Hapned in New-England, by Reason of the Indians There, from the Year 1614 to the Year 1675 (New York: Arno Press, [1676] 1972).

º Orr, Charles ed., History of the Pequot War: The Contemporary Accounts of Mason, Underhill, Vincent, and Gardiner (Cleveland, 1897).

º Underhill, John. Nevves from America; or, A New and Experimentall Discoverie of New England: Containing, a True Relation of their War-like Proceedings these two yeares last past, with a figure of the Indian fort, or Palizado. Also a discovery of these places, that as yet have very few or no inhabitants which would yeeld speciall accommodation to such as will plant there . . . By Captaine Iohn Underhill, a commander in the warres there (London: Printed by I. D[awson] for Peter Cole, and are to be sold at the signe of the Glove in Corne-hill neere the Royall Exchange, 1638).

º Vincent, Philip. A True Relation of the late Battell fought in New England, between the English, and the Salvages: VVith the present state of things there (London: Printed by M[armaduke] P[arsons] for Nathanael Butter, and Iohn Bellamie, 1637).

Pàgines Web Externes[modificar | modificar la font]

º Foxwoods Resort Casino (Owned & operated by the Mashantucket Pequots)

º Mashantucket Pequot History

º Lee Sultzman's Pequot Info Webpage

º Pequot Museum