Joan XXII

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Joan XXII
John22.jpg
Nom de naissença: Jacme Duesa (o d'Euse)
Pontificat: 1316-4 de decembre de 1334
Predecessor: Clamenç V
Successor: Beneset XII
An de naissença: 1249
Luòc de naissença: Caors, Carcin
País: Occitània
Data de decès: 4 de decembre de 1334
Luòc de decès: Avinhon


Joan XXII (Caors 1249; 4 de decembre de 1334), nascut Jacme Duesa (en francés: Jacques Duèze), foguèt papa de 1316 a 1334. Foguèt lo segond papa d'Avinhon (1309-1377), elegit per un conclau a Lion assembled by Felip V de la França. Like his predecessor, Clement V, he centralized power and income in the Papacy, living a princely life in Avignon. He opposed Lois IV de Bavièra as emperor, and Louis in turn invaded Itàlia and set up an antipope, Nicolau V. During this conflict, Pope John excommunicated Franciscan friar and Scholastic scholar Guilhèm d'Ockham.

Pope John XXII also faced controversy in theology. He was the last Pope to say that heaven (specifically the beatific vision) was delayed until Judgment Day. He condemned the popular German mystic Meister Eckhart as heretical.

Biografia[modificar | modificar la font]

He was the son of a shoemaker in Caors. He studied medicine in Montpellier and law en l'París.

The two-year gap (sede vacante) between the death of Pope Clement V in 1314 and the election of John XXII in 1316 was due to extreme disagreement between the cardinals, who were split into two factions. After two years, Philip V of France (1316–22) finally managed to arrange a conclau of twenty-three cardinals in Lion. They duly elected Jacques d'Euse Pope John XXII and he was crowned in Lion. He set up his residence in Avinhon rather than Rome, continuing the Papat d'Avinhon forced by Rei Felip IV en 1309 that would end in 1377.

Joan XXII involved himself in the politics and religious movements of many païses europeus in order to advance the interests of the Church. This made him a very controversial pope at the time.

Before John XXII's election a contest had begun for the imperial crown between Lois IV de Bavièra (1314–47) and his opponent, Frederick I of Austria (1308–30). John XXII was neutral at first; but in 1323, quand Lois IV had won and became Holy Roman Emperor, the Guelph (papal) party and the Ghibelline (imperial) party began a serious quarrel. This was partly provoked by John XXII's extreme claims of authority over the empire and also partly by Louis IV's support of the spiritual Franciscans, whom John XXII condemned for their insistence on evangelical poverty and their belief that mendicant friars would replace the priesthood and sacraments of the Church. Louis IV was assisted in his doctrinal dispute with the papacy by Marsilius of Padua, and later by the British monk William of Ockham. Louis IV invaded Italy, entered Rome and set up Pietro Rainalducci as Nicolau V (1328–30). The project was a fiasco, and Guelphic predominance at Rome was later restored. However, Louis IV had silenced the papal claims, and John XXII stayed the rest of his life in Avignon.

Pope John XXII was involved in a theological controversy involving the Beatific Vision. Beginning before he was pope, he argued that those who died in the faith did not see the presence of God until the Last Judgment. The point is important to Catholics, since if the dead are not in the presence of God, then the whole idea of prayers to the sants would seem to be undermined. John XXII continued this argument for a time in sermons while he was pope, although he never expressed his argument as an ex cathedra teaching. He eventually backed down from his position, and agreed that those who died while in the faith do indeed enjoy the Beatific Vision.

John XXII was not considered to have become a heretic despite his denial for many years of the Catholic doctrine that souls of persons who die in grace are immediately admitted to the Beatific Vision since this doctrine was not formally established by the Church, a lacuna that his successor, papa Beneset XII (1334–42), immediately filled by his legislation in the encyclical Benedictus Deus which formally made this doctrine a part of Church teaching.

Pope John XXII was also an excellent administrator and did much efficient reorganizing.

John XXII has traditionally been credited with having composed the prayer 'Anima Christi, sanctifica me...', which has come down to us in English as 'Soul of Christ, sanctify me...' and as the hymn, 'Soul of my Saviour, sanctify my breast'.

On Sunday 27th March 1329 John XXII condemned many writings of Meister Eckhart as heretical in his papal bull 'in agro dominico'.

Fora-borra[modificar | modificar la font]

He is frequently discussed in Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose, and is also featured in Maurice Druon's series of historical novels The Accursed Kings.

The previous pope named Joan was Joan XXI. The last pope named John before that was Papa Joan XIX (1024–32), who was additionally really only the eighteenth pope named John. And there is no Joan XX (see article for explanation).

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Precedit per Joan XXII Seguit per
Clamenç V
Emblem of the Papacy SE.svg
Lista dels papas
Beneset XII