La teologia (del grèc θεολογία [theologia], literalament « dicha sus la divinitat o çò divenc, lo Θεός [Theos] ») es l'estudi, que se vòl racional, de las realitats relativas al divenc, quitament se d'autres disciplinas, particularament la filosofia, la psicologia o la sociologia, tractan de Dieu, de las cresenças e del «fach religiós». Dins las religions monoteïstas subretot, es considerada coma la sciéncia de la Revelacion, fondada sus l'estudi dels tèxtes religiós, lor interpretacion, dins la tòca d'esclairar lo cresènt o lo fidèl sul biais d'agir o de creire segon sa religion.
De fach, al sens pus estricte se pòt pas parlar de teologia que per la fin del paganisme , lo cristianisme occidental e l'ortodoxia, pr'amor qu'es lo produch de l'encontra entre la filosofia antica e la religion. Existèt a la talvera una vertadièra teologia musulmana e joseva, al sens d'una encontra entre las doctrinas d'aquelas religions e la filosofia (antica) mas la via foguèt lèu copada ; se per teologia se pensa tota dicha sus dieu(s) e la religion alavetz lo concèpte ven mai leugièr, los mites e la sciéncia de las religions son de teologia.
Teologia e l'Academia[modificar | modificar la font]
Theology has a significantly problematic position within Academia that is not shared by any other subject. Most universitats founded before the modern era grew out of the church schools and monastic institutions of de l'Euròpa Occidentala during the Nauta Edat Mejana (e.g. Universitat de Bolonha, Universitat de París e l'Universitat de Oxford). They were founded to train young men to serve the church in Teologia and Drech (generalament lo Drech Canonic). At such Universities Theological study was incomplete without Theological practice, including preaching, prayer and celebration of the Mass. Ancient Universities still maintain some of these links (e.g. having Chapels and Chaplains) and are more likely to teach Theology than other institutions.
During the High Middle Ages theology was therefore the ultimate subject at universities, being named "The Queen of the Sciences", and serving as the capstone to the Trivium and Quadrivium that young men were expected to study. This meant that the other subjects (including Filosofia) existed primarily to help with theological thought.
With the Enlightenment], universities began to change, teaching a wide range of subjects, especially in Alemanha, and from a perspectiva umanistica. Theology was no longer the principal subject and Universities existed for many purposes, not only to train Clergy for established churches. Theology thus became unusual as the only subject to maintain a confessional basis in otherwise secular establishments.
As a result theology is often distinguished from many other established Academic disciplines that cover the same subject area. Those who contend it is different sometimes claim that it is distinguished by viewpoint (suggesting that theology is studied from within a faith, rather than from without) and by practical involvement (suggesting theology cannot be truly studied or understood without a practical faith - an idea that would have been familiar to some of the early Christian Church Fathers, who described the theologian as a person who "truly prays."). Others would claim that theology involves taking seriously claims internal to a religious tradition on their own terms, as topics for investigation and analysis - studying people's beliefs about God, rather than necessarily studying God, perhaps - even if that inquiry is not carried out by one who is committed to the relevant tradition, or involved in practice flowing from it.