Jerusalèm

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יְרוּשָׁלַיִם
Yerushaláyim
أورشليم القدس
Urshalim-Al-Quds
Jerusalem infobox image.JPG
Flag of Jerusalem.svg Emblem of Jerusalem.svg
País Bandièra d’Israèl Israèl, levat Jerusalèm Èst pas reconegut per l'ONU
Superfícia 126 km²
Populacion 933 200 (2012)
Latitud 31° 46' N
Longitud 35° 13' È
Localizacion de la vila en Israèl
Jerusalem Israel Map.png


Jerusalèm (ירושלים - Yerushalayim en ebrieu, القدس - al Quds en arabi musulman o ا'ورشليم Ûrshalîm en arabi crestian ; lo nom oficial per l'Estat d'Israèl es Yerushalayim Ûrshalîm al Quds) es una vila de l' Orient Mejan considerada per l'estat d'Israèl coma sa capitala, mas aquesta designacion es pas reconeguda per la comunautat internacionala. La vila es situada dins los Monts de Judèa, entre la Mar Mediterranèa e lo limit nòrd de la Mar Mòrta. La Jerusalèm modèrna s'es estenduda luenh darrièr los limits de la vila vièlha, se Jerusalèm Èst es inclús, es la pus granda vila d'Israèl[1] a l'encòp en populacion e en superfícia,[2] amb 763 800 abitants subre una superfícia de 125,1 km2.[3][4]

Jerusalèm es una vila santa per las tres religions abrahamicas màger: Judaïsme, Cristianisme e Islam. Per lo Judaïsme, Jerusalèm es una vila santa dempuèi que, segon l'ancian Testament biblic, lo rei David d'Israèl ne faguèt la capitala del Reialme d'Israèl en 1000 ab JC, e son filh Salomon comandèt la bastison del Primièr Temple dins la vila.[5] Dins lo Cristianisme, Jerusalèm es una vila santa dempuèi que, segon lo Novèl Testament, Jèsus foguèt crucificat en c. 30 CE, e que 300 ans pus tard Santa Elena identifiquèt lo site del pelegrinatge de la vida de Jèsus. Dins l'Islam Sunita, Jerusalèm es la tresena vila santa.[6][7] Venguèt la primièra Qibla, lo punt focal per la pregària musulmana (Salah) en 610 CE,[8] e segon la tradicion islamica, Maomet i faguèt son viatge nocturne detz ans pus tard.[9][10] En consequéncia, e malgrat una superfícia de solament 0,9 km2,[11] la Vila Vièlha albèrga de sites d'importància religiosa clau, entre eles cal senhalar: lo Mont del Temple, lo Mur Oèst, la Glèisa del Sant Sepulcre, la Copòla de la Ròca e la mosqueta Al-Aqsa.

Durant sa longa istòria, Jerusalèm foguèt destruïta dos còps, assejada 23 còps, atacada 52 còps, e presa e tornar presa 44 còps.[12] La part pus vièlha de la vila foguèt establida al millenni IV abC abans JC, fasent de Jerusalèm una de las pus anciana ciutat del mond.[13] La vila vièlha al dintre dels barris, un site del Patrimòni Mondial de l'Umanitat, es devesida tradicionalament en quatre quartièrs, e mai que los noms utilizats uèi: quartièrs armèni, crestian, josieu, e Muslim o foguèsson pas que dempuèi lo sègle XIX.[14] La vila vièlha foguèt nomenada per èsser inclusa dins la Lista del Patrimòni de l'Umanitat en Perilh per Jordania en 1982.[15]

Uèi, l'estatut de Jerusalèm demora un problèma central del Conflicte Israelopalestinian. Pendent la Guèrra Araboisraeliana de 1948, Jerusalèm Oèst foguèt entre los airals envasits puèi annexats per Israèl, mentre que Jerusalèm Èst foguèt capturat per Jordania. Israèl s'emparèt de Jerusalèm Èst en 1967 durant la Guèrra dels Sièis Jorns en seguida de que lo territòri foguèt annexat. Actualament, la Lei Basica israeliana fa de Jerusalèm la capitala indevesibla del país. La comunautat internacionala regeta l'annexion coma illegala e considèra Jerusalèm Èst coma un territòri palestinian jos ocupacion militara israeliana.[16][17][18][19] La comunautat internacionala reconeis pas Jerusalèm coma capitala d'Israèl, e la vila albèrga pas cap d'ambassada estrangièra.

Segon l'Oficina Centrala Palestiniana d'Estatisticas 208 000 palestinians demòran a Jerusalèm Èst, qu'es propausada per l'Autoritat Nacionala Palestiniana coma futura capitala d'un futur Estat Palestinian.[20][21][22]

Totas las brancas del govèrn israelian son situadas a Jerusalèm, inclús la Knesset (Parlament israelian), la residéncia del primièr ministre e del president e la Cort Suprèma. Jerusalèm albèrga tanben l'Universitat Ebraïca e lo Musèu d'Israèl amb son Santuari del Libre. Lo Zoo Biblic de Jerusalèm es classat pels israelians coma la pus granda atraction toristica.[23][24]

Referéncias[modificar | modificar la font]

  1. :Largest city:
    • "… modern Jerusalem, Israel's largest city …" (Erlanger, Steven. Jerusalem, Now, The New York Times, 16 April 2006.)
    • "Jerusalem is Israel's largest city." ("Israel (country), Microsoft Encarta, 2006, p. 3. Retrieved 18 October 2006. Archived 31 October 2009.)
    • "Since 1975 unified Jerusalem has been the largest city in Israel." ("Jerusalem", Encyclopædia Britannica Online, 2006. Retrieved 18 October 2006. Archived 21 June 2008)
    • "Jerusalem is the largest city in the State of Israel. It has the largest population, the most Jews and the most non-Jews of all Israeli cities." (Klein, Menachem. Jerusalem: The Future of a Contested City, New York University Press, 1 March 2001, p. 18. ISBN 0-8147-4754-X)
    • "In 1967, Tel Aviv was the largest city in Israel. By 1987, more Jews lived in Jerusalem than the total population of Tel Aviv. Jerusalem had become Israel's premier city." (Friedland, Roger and Hecht, Richard. To Rule Jerusalem, University of California Press, 19 September 2000, p. 192. ISBN 0-520-22092-7).
  2. « Press Release: Jerusalem Day » [PDF], Central Bureau of Statistics,‎ (consultat lo 10 març 2007)
  3. « TABLE 3. – POPULATION(1) OF LOCALITIES NUMBERING ABOVE 2,000 RESIDENTS AND OTHER RURAL POPULATION ON 31/12/2008 » [PDF], Israel Central Bureau of Statistics (consultat lo 26 octobre 2009)
  4. ( lenga pas reconeguda : hebrew) « Local Authorities in Israel 2007, Publication #1295 – Municipality Profiles – Jerusalem » [PDF], Israel Central Bureau of Statistics (consultat lo 31 decembre 2007):
  5. :Since the 10th century BCE:Modèl:Ref label
    • "Israel was first forged into a unified nation from Jerusalem some 3,000 years ago, when King David seized the crown and united the twelve tribes from this city ... For a thousand years Jerusalem was the seat of Jewish sovereignty, the household site of kings, the location of its legislative councils and courts. In exile, the Jewish nation came to be identified with the city that had been the site of its ancient capital. Jews, wherever they were, prayed for its restoration." Roger Friedland, Richard D. Hecht. To Rule Jerusalem, University of California Press, 2000, p. 8. ISBN 0-520-22092-7
    • "The Jewish bond to Jerusalem was never broken. For three millennia, Jerusalem has been the center of the Jewish faith, retaining its symbolic value throughout the generations." Jerusalem- the Holy City, Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 23 February 2003. Accessed 24 March 2007.
    • "The centrality of Jerusalem to Judaism is so strong that even secular Jews express their devotion and attachment to the city, and cannot conceive of a modern State of Israel without it.... For Jews Jerusalem is sacred simply because it exists... Though Jerusalem's sacred character goes back three millennia ...". Leslie J. Hoppe. The Holy City: Jerusalem in the theology of the Old Testament, Liturgical Press, 2000, p. 6. ISBN 0-8146-5081-3
    • "Ever since King David made Jerusalem the capital of Israel 3,000 years ago, the city has played a central role in Jewish existence." Mitchell Geoffrey Bard, The Complete Idiot's Guide to the Middle East Conflict, Alpha Books, 2002, p. 330. ISBN 0-02-864410-7
    • "For Jews the city has been the pre-eminent focus of their spiritual, cultural, and national life throughout three millennia." Yossi Feintuch, U.S. Policy on Jerusalem, Greenwood Publishing Group, 1987, p. 1. ISBN 0-313-25700-0
    • "Jerusalem became the center of the Jewish people some 3,000 years ago" Moshe Maoz, Sari Nusseibeh, Jerusalem: Points of Friction – And Beyond, Brill Academic Publishers, 2000, p. 1. ISBN 90-411-8843-6
    • "The Jewish people are inextricably bound to the city of Jerusalem. No other city has played such a dominant role in the history, politics, culture, religion, national life and consciousness of a people as has Jerusalem in the life of Jewry and Judaism. Since King David established the city as the capital of the Jewish state circa 1000 BCE, it has served as the symbol and most profound expression of the Jewish people's identity as a nation." Basic Facts you should know: Jerusalem, Anti-Defamation League, 2007. Retrieved 28 March 2007.
  6. :Third-holiest city in Islam:
    • (en) John L. Esposito, What Everyone Needs to Know about Islam, Oxford University Press, (ISBN 0195157133), p. 157 :

      « The Night Journey made Jerusalem the third holiest city in Islam »

    • (en) Leon Carl Brown, Religion and State: The Muslim Approach to Politics, Columbia University Press, (ISBN 0231120389), « Setting the Stage: Islam and Muslims », p. 11 :

      « The third holiest city of Islam—Jerusalem—is also very much in the center ... »

    • (en) Leslie J. Hoppe, The Holy City: Jerusalem in the Theology of the Old Testament, Michael Glazier Books, (ISBN 0814650813), p. 14 :

      « Jerusalem has always enjoyed a prominent place in Islam. Jerusalem is often referred to as the third holiest city in Islam ... »

      :
  7. :"Middle East peace plans" by Willard A. Beling": The Aqsa Mosque on the Temple Mount is the third holiest site in Sunni Islam after Mecca and Medina:
  8. :(en) Cambridge History of Islam, Cambridge University Press, :
  9. :Modèl:Quran-usc-range
  10. (en) Edgar Allen, States, Nations, and Borders: The Ethics of Making Boundaries, Cambridge University Press, (ISBN 0521525756, legir en linha)
  11. (en) Teddy Kollek, A Will to Survive – Israel: the Faces of the Terror 1948-the Faces of Hope Today, John Phillips, , « Afterword » :

    « about Modèl:Convert »

    :
  12. :« Do We Divide the Holiest Holy City? », Moment Magazine (consultat lo 5 març 2008). According to Eric H. Cline’s tally in Jerusalem Besieged.:
  13. :« Timeline for the History of Jerusalem », Jewish Virtual Library, American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise (consultat lo 16 abril 2007):
  14. :(en) Yehoshua Ben-Arieh, Jerusalem in the 19th Century, The Old City, Yad Izhak Ben Zvi & St. Martin's Press, (ISBN 0312441878), p. 14:
  15. :« Old City of Jerusalem and its Walls », Whc.unesco.org (consultat lo 11 setembre 2010):
  16. :Modèl:Cite news:
  17. :(en) The Question of Palestine & the United Nations, United Nations Department of Public Information, « The status of Jerusalem » :

    « East Jerusalem has been considered, by both the General Assembly and the Security Council, as part of the occupied Palestinian territory. »

    :
  18. :Israeli authorities back 600 new East Jerusalem homes BBC 26 February 2010:
  19. :Resolution 298 September 25, 1971: "Recalling its resolutions ... concerning measures and actions by Israel designed to change the status of the Israeli-occupied section of Jerusalem,...":
  20. :Jerome M. Segal, « Negotiating Jerusalem », The University of Maryland School of Public Policy,‎ fall 1997 (consultat lo 25 febrièr 2007):
  21. :Møller, Bjørn (November 2002). {{{title}}} (PDF), Centre for European Policy Studies. Retrieved on 16 April 2007. :
  22. :Palestinians grow by a million in decade:
  23. :Irit Rosenblum, « Haareez Biblical Zoo favorite tourist site in 2006 », Haaretz, Israel (consultat lo 11 setembre 2010)
  24. Jonathan Lis, « Jerusalem Zoo is Israel's number one tourist attraction », Haaretz, Israel (consultat lo 9 setembre 2011):
Vista de Jerusalèm dempuèi lo Mont dels Olius