Quinnipiacs

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Territòris tribaus deth sud de Naua Anglatèrra

Es Quinnipiac se didien a se madeishi Eansketanmbawg (era gent opriginau), ua nacion americana de natius dera familha des algonquins damb es Ojibwa e es Abenaki ena region de Connecticut.

Eth pòble des Quinnipiac - tanben coneguts coma Qiripi e Renapi - parlen ua lengua dera familha algonquina. An sigut era prumèra nacion de natius americans en dintrar en ua reserva (1) en 1638 a Brandford, Madison, Derby e Farmington (2).

Lèu se reconeguec que i auia més Quinnipiac ar oest de Connecticut (3) enquia Nòva York a l'oest de Long Island (4). Des de 1997 era Confederacion Quiripi a estat extesa enquia aguesta zona (5).

Istòria[modificar | modificar la font]

Er arriu Quinnipiac va de Farmington, Connecticut, enquia Deadwood Swamp en Long Island. Eth païs vòl díder païs dera grana aiga. Es Quinnipiac auien diuersi vilatges e auien coma eroi eth gegant de piera Hobbomock.

Es francesi e hollandesi es aperaren Quiripi e es anglesi Quinnipiac. Es sòns dialectes son:

º Eansketambawg (gent original)

º Rennewawk (es òmes de vertat)

º Quiripi (era gent dera grana aiga)

º Renapi (era gent de vertat)

º Wanpano (era gent der est)

Eth nom Quinnipiac (era gent dera grana aiga) pòt voler díder eth gran pish pr'amor qu'en temps d'abans des europèus a auia un gran pish de més de 200 Km dempús d'a on es glacèrs se fonien.

Era economia des Quinnipiac se dirigia tà bastir wampum e auer de hòrts qu'es anglesi aperauen castèths (6). Tà bastir eth wampum recolhien ustres e clams qu'eren enviats as centres de negòcis algonquins. Un des més famosi que siguec Cahokia. Atau eth wampum deth solelh eren rochi, blancs e daurats. Es dera luna qu'eren tà hér colars. D'autes industries eren era recoleccion de coire. recolhien aguest en West Rock en de granes peires e era enviat tas centres regionals pera hér colars, amulets, coltelhs e chaplades.

Precoloniau[modificar | modificar la font]

Abans des granes epidemies se cre qu'es Quinnipiac eren 25.000 en Connecticut e 25.000 més en er est de Nòva York e Nòva Jersey. Açò hé 100 a 1200 per banda. Era reserva de Mioonhtuck qu'ei era prumèra des Estats Units (1638). Pendent eth 1700 e eth 1800 es quinnipiac caminaren entà autes luochs (7) coma Nòva York, Indiana o Quebèc. Des de 1850 a 1900 plan d'aguesti indis tornaren entara eth païs dera grana aiga.

Era ua gent de patz e negòci més tanben ferotges ena guerra. En 1506 es Quinnipiac der est de Connecticut auien agut tanti morts per epidemia qu'es Pequot envasiren era zona e atacaren as Quinnipìac e as Narragansett enquia Long Island. Un capmestre Pequot, Uncus, anec dehora dera region e fundec es Mohegans. Aguest e Nepaupuck ( un capitan de guerra des Quinnipiac) firmec diuersi tratadi damb es anglesi.

En 1675 150 Quinnipiac e Mohegan amassats damb 350 anglesi atacaren e ganharen as Pequot. Dempús ajudaren es americans contra es anglesi ena Revolucion Americana.

Cultura, lengua e llegat[modificar | modificar la font]

Es Quinnipiacs viuien dera pesca e de plantar hroment, cogordes, carabasses, favons, fruita, notzes e baies. Es sòns camps eren rotatius. eth peish era assecat sus eth huec. Usauen falcons tà manténer es audèths lonh des camps de hroment. en Ivern caminauen enquiara Val deth Plaser.

En eth periode coloniau, moli òmes tribalhauen coma pescaires o adralhals. Demorauen en wigwams (ostals eliptics hetes damb husta e pèths ) atau coma en quinnekommuks (ostals longs e rectangulars de husta ). dens un d'aguesti ostals i auien enquia sies huecs. es més grani eren es ostals religiosi. Heien canoes damb rusques d'olm de més de sies metres tà caçar e pescar e de més de dotze metres ta hér la guerra. Adorauen eth solelh, era luna e es estels (8).

Es Quinnipiac parlauen eth Wampano-Quinipey. Molti indis d'aguesta tribú resistiren plan es puritans. Més si acceptaren de víuer enes Viles Puritanes plan d'eri aueren d'abandonar tot coma religion, lengua, vestit, querimònies, ostals, negòcis, libertat e familhes. Plan d'indis hugiren a d'autes terres algonquines.

Eth chaman Quinnipiac heia oferiments damb tabac as esperits. Tanben as trons en cas de guerra. Tanben oferien eth solelh, luna, estels, montanhes, arrius, mars e era Gent Petita e es Gegants de Peira Hobbomock e Maushop. Plan de descendents puritans diden qu'açò son messorges pr'amor qu'aguesti indis i son pas més ena Terra. Sòns descendents diden tostemps "We are still here" (Enqüera sèm acíu).

Eth Conselh tribal des Quinnipiacs dera Confederacion Algonquina amassa enter 100-150 familhes aué.

Referencies[modificar | modificar la font]

1.- ^ Richard Carlson, “The Quinnipiac Reservation,” Rooted Like the Ash Trees, Eagle Wing Press, 1987.

2.- ^ Iron Thunderhorse, “The ‘Other’ Quinnipiac Reservations”, Branford Review, April 26, 2003.

3.- ^ J.H. Trumbull, Indian Names of Places, In and On the Borders of Connecticut, Hartford, CT 1881 (reprinted 1974 by Archon Books, the Shoestring Press, Inc., Hamden. Also see Trumbull’s Introduction to 1658 Pierson Catechism, in 1895 CHS Collections.

4.- ^ Blair Rudes, “Resurrecting Wampano (Quiripi) from the Dead, Phonological Preliminaries,” Anthropological Linguistics, Vol. 39. No. 1, Spring 1997

5.- ^ John Menta, “Shaumpishuh, ‘Squaw Sachem’ of the Quinnipiac Indians” in ARTIFACTS, Vol. 16, No. 3-4:32-27, 1988 and Iron Thunderhorse, “Setting the Record Straight: A Linguistic-Ethnographic Study of the True Identity of the Quinnipiac/Quiripi/Renapi Nation Structure.” 2007 [1]

6.- ^ Kathleen J. Bragdon, Native People of Southern New England, 1500-1650, Norman, University of Oklahoma Press, 1996 and "The Sachemship and its Defenders", paper submitted at the American Historical Association, Washington, DC, 1987. Also see Iron Thunderhorse, We the People Called Quinnipiac, 2006 http://acqtc.com/Culture/History

7.- ^ see map at http://acqtc.com/Culture/WtpcqTrailHeartaches

8.- ^ Iron Thunderhorse, “An Ancient American Indian Stone Calendar in Connecticut,” Ancient American, Volume 5, Issue Number 36, December 2000, pp. 2-4.

Bibliografia[modificar | modificar la font]

º The Complete Language Guide for Learning, Speaking, and Writing the PEA-A WAMPANO-QUIRIPI R-DIALECT, 2007 revised ed, QTC Press/ACLI Series, ACQTC, Inc. 201 Church Street, Milltown, IN 47145.

º ”The Quinnipiac of New England” by Iron Thunderhorse in Whispering Wind, Vol. 32, No. 5, 2002.

º Cultural Conflict in Southern New England: A History of the Quinnipiac Indians by John Menta, Yale Press, New Haven. CT.

º Some Helps for the Indians 1658 Bilingual Catechism, by Rev. Abraham Pierson, reprinted in “Language and Lore of the Long Island Indians” Readings in Long Island Archaeology and Ethnohistory, Vol. IV, 1980. Stony Brook, NY, Suffolk County Archaeological Association.

º East Rock (Wappintumpseck): A Sacred Landmark In the Traditions of the Quinnipiac and Its Relationship to the Algonquian Ethos” by Iron Thunderhorse, 1996. Paper submitted to Connecticut Historical Commission and University of Connecticut at Storrs, CT.

º The Strange Case of Nepaupuck: Warrior or War Criminal?” in Journal of the New Haven Colony Historical Society, Vol. 33 (2) 12-17, 1987, by John Menta. º The Quinnipiac Reservation: Land and Tribal Identity,” by Richard Carlson in Rooted Like the Ash Trees, Naugatuck, CT: Eagle Wing Press, 1987-1988.

º Shaumpishuh, ‘Squaw Sachem’ of the Quinnipiac Indians,” by John Menta in Artifacts, 1988, Vol. 16, No. 3-4, pp. 32-37.

º Resurrecting Wampano (Quiripi) from the Dead: Phonological Preliminaries” by Blair A. Rudes, in Anthropological Linguistics, Vol. 39, No. 1, Spring 1997.

º Indian Names of Places, etc. In and on the Borders of Connecticut with Interpretations of Some of Them,” by James Hammond Trumbull, 1881 (reprinted 1974 by Archon Books).

º The intricate nature of sachemdoms” by Iron Thunderhorse in Branford Review, 9-7-02.

º Itineraries and Memoirs of Ezra Stiles, 1760-1762. Beineke Rare Books Library, New Haven, CT.

Pàgines web externes[modificar | modificar la font]

º ACQTC ON-LINE: http://www.acqtc.com. We the People Called Quinnipiac, QTC Press e-media e-book on CD-ROM (available through ACQTC, see http://acqtc.com/Store/HomePage)

º Setting the Record Straight: A Linguistic-Ethnographic Study of the True Identity of the Quinnipiac/Quiripi/Renapi Nation Structure” by Iron Thunderhorse, http://www.acqtc.com/Articles/SettingtheRecordStraight

º Quinnipiac River History (http://ColdSpringSchool.org/griver/oldeq.htm)

º The City of New Haven — Land of the Quinnipiac (http://www.yale,edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/1997/4/97.04.01.x.html.)

º Quinnipiac University — History and Mission Statement (http://quinnipiac.edu/xioii.xml) Quinnipiac Dawnland Museum, Archives and Library (see http://acqtc.com/NewsEvents/200606)

º Benjamin BRETON (2008) The Quinnipiac: New Haven’s First Inhabitants. Communication on Contemporary Anthropology 2:e12. (http://comonca.org/2008012.aspx)